UK Registered Charity 1122246 This website would not be possible without the kind help of Tony Martin of the “AV Martin Charitable Foundation”

Bannoehr, J.N.L., Ben Zakour, A.S., Waller, L., Guardabassi, K.L., Thoday, A.H., van den Brock, A.H. and Fitzgerald, J.R. (2007) Population genetic structure of the Staphylococcus intermedius group: Insights into agr diversification and the emergence of methicillin-resistant strains. J. Bacteriol. 189, 8685-8692

Bexley J, Nuttall TJ, Hammerberg J, Fitzgerald JF, Halliwell REW (2012) Serum anti-Staphylococcus pseudintermedius IgE and IgG antibodies in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Veterinary Dermatology. In press.

Bilberstein, E.L., Jang, S.S. and Hirsh, D.C. (1984) Species distribution of coagulase-positive staphylococci in animals. J Clin Microbiol. 19(5):610-615.

Buckley L, McEwan NA, Nuttall TJ (2012) TrisEDTA significantly enhances antibiotic efficacy against multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. Veterinary Dermatology. In press.

Campanile, H. F., Bongiorno, S., Borbone, M., Venditti, M., Giannella, C., Franchi, and Stefani, S. (2007) Characterisation of a variant of the SCCmec element in a bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus intermedius. Microb Drug Resis. 13, 7-10

Chambers, H.F. (2005) Community associated MRSA – resistance and virulence converge. N Engl J Med. 352(14): 1485-1487.

Chambers, H. F. and DeLeo, F. R. (2009) Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat Rev Microbiol. 7, 629-641

Cosgrove, S.E., Sakoulas, G. Perencevich, E.N. et al. (2003) Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 36(1);592-598.

DeLeo, F.R, Diep, B.A. and Otto, M. (2009) Host defense and pathogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 23(1): 17-34.

Descloux, S.A., Rossano, A. and Perreten, V. 2008: Characterization of new Staphylococcal cassette chromosomal mac (SCC) and topoisomerase genes in flouroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal pseudintermedius. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46, 1818-1823

Duquette R and Nuttall TJ (2004) Meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dogs and cats: an emerging problem. Journal of Small Animal Practice 45, 591-597.

Fazakerley J, Williams NJ, McEwan NA, Carter SD, Nuttall TJ (2010) Heterogeneity of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from atopic and healthy dogs. Veterinary Dermatology 21 578–85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2010.00894.x.

Fazakerley J, Crossley J, McEwan NA, Carter SD, TJ Nuttall (2010) In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ?-defensin 3 against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy and atopic canine skin. Veterinary Dermatology 21 463-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2010.00893.x.

Fazakerley J, Nuttall TJ, Sales D, Schmidt V, Carter SD, Hart CA, McEwan NA (2009) Staphylococcal colonization of mucosal and lesional skin sites in atopic and healthy dogs. Veterinary Dermatology 20 179-184.

Goodacre, R., Harvey, R., Howell, S.A., Greenham, L.W. and Noble, W.C. 1997: An epidemiological study of Staphylococcus intermedius strains from dogs, their owners and veterinary surgeons. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 44, 49-64

Guardabassi, L., Loeber, M. and Jacobson, A. 2004: Transmission of multiple antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius strains between dogs affected by deep pyoderma and their owners. Vet. Microbiol. 98, 23-27.

Hanselman, B.A., Kruth, A.S., and Weese, J.S. 2008: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci colonization in dogs entering a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet. Microbiol. 126, 277-281

Hughes LA, Williams NJ, Clegg P, Callaby R, Nuttall TJ, Coyne K, Pinchbeck G, Dawson S (2012) Cross-sectional survey of antimicrobial prescribing patterns in UK small animal veterinary practice. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 104 309-316.

Jones, R.D., Kania, S.A., Rohrbach,  B.W., Frank, L.A. and Bemis, D.A. 2007: Prevalence of oxacillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococci in clinical samples from dogs: 1,722 samples (2001-2005). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc, 230,  221-227

Kirby, W.M. (1944) Extraction of a highly potent penicillin inactivation from penicillin reistant staphylococci. Science. 99(2679):452-453.

Lloyd DH, Loeffler A, Nuttall TJ, Weese JS (2012) Antimicrobial selective pressure in pet-owning healthcare workers. Veterinary Record 170. 211-212. DOI: 10.1136/vr.e1313.

Loeffler, A.M., Linek, A., Moodley, L. Guardabassi, I., Sung, J.M., Winkler, M., Weiss, R. and Lloyd, D.L. 2007. First report of multidrug resistant, mecA-positive Staphylococcus intermedius in Europe: 12 cases from a veterinary dermatology referral clinic in Germany. Vet. Dermatol. 18, 412-421

Loeffler, A. Pfeiffer, D.U., Lloyd, D.H. Smith, H., Soares-Magalhaes, R. and Lindsay, J.A. 2010: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in UK veterinary staff and owners of infected pets: new risk group. J. Hosp. Infect. 74, 282-288

Martins AM, Nuttall TJ (2011) Meticillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a great Dane. BSAVA Companion Oct 2011 11-14.

Moodley, A., Nightingale, E.C., Stegger, M. Nielsen, S.S., Skov, R.L. and Guardabassi, L. 2006: High risk for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Danish veterinary practitioners. Scand. J. Work. Environ. Health. 34, 151-157

Morris, D.O., Boston, R.C., Shea, K.O. and Rankin, S.C. 2010: The prevalence of carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets. Vet. Dermatol. 21, 400-407.

Nuttall TJ, Williams NJ, Saunders R, Dawson S (2009) Meticillin-resistant Staphylococci in companion animals. European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 18 280-287.

Paul, N.C., Moodley, A., Ghibaudo, G. and Guardabassi, L. 2011: Carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Small Animal Veterinarians: Indirect Evidence of Zoonotic Transmission. Zoonoses Public Health, 1-7

Perreten, V., Kadlec, K. Schwarz, S., Andreson, U.G., Finn, M. Greko, C., Moodley, A., Kania, S.A., Frank, D.A., Bennis, A., Franco, M., Iurescia, A., Battisti, B., Duim, J.A., Wagenar, E., van Duijkerenn, J.S., Weese, J.R., Fitzgerald, A., Rossano, A. and  Guardabassi, L. 2010 Clonal spread of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus pseudintermedius  in Europe and North America: an international multicenter study. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 65, 1145-1154.

Sasaki, T., Kikuchi, K., Tanaka, Y., Takahashi, N., Kamata, S., and Hiramatsu, K. (2007) Reclassification of phenotypically identified Staphylococcus intermediusstrains. J. Clin. Micriobio. 45, 2270-2778

Sasaki, T., Kikuchi, K., Tanaka, Y., Takahashi, N., Kamata, S., and Hiramatsu, K. (2007) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal pseudintermedius in a veterinary teaching hospital. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45, 1118-1125

Schmidt VM, Williams NJ, Dawson S, Shaw S, McEwan NA, Nuttall TJ (2012) Mucosal bacteria community profiles in the absence of antibiotics – a pilot study in healthy dogs. Veterinary Dermatology 23 Suppl 1 52-53.

Schmidt V, Nuttall TJ, Dawson S, McEwan NA, Williams MJ (2012) Prospective cohort pilot study of the faecal E. coli community profiles in a group of healthy dogs in the absence of antibiotics. Veterinary Dermatology 23 Suppl 1 pp 53.

Schmidt V, Nuttall TJ, Fazakerley J, McEwan NA (2009) Staphylococcus pseudintermedius binding to immobilized fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin in vitro. Veterinary Dermatology 20 502-8.

Schwarz, S., Kadlec, K. and Strommenger, B. 2008: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Stapylococcus pseudintermedius detected in the B/T GernVet monitoring programme 2004-2006. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 61, 282-285

Stegmann, R., Burnens, A., Maranta, C.A. and Perreten, V. 2010: Human infection associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 65, 2047-2048

Swinney A, Fazakerley J, McEwan, NA Nuttall TJ (2008) Comparative in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of commercial ear cleaners. Veterinary Dermatology 19 373-379.

Talan, D.A., Staatz, D. Staatz, A. and Overturf, G.D. 1989 Frequency of Staphylococcus intermedius as human nasopharyngeal flora. J. Clin. Microbio. 27, 2393.

Van Duijkeren, E.D.J., Houwers, A., Schoormans, M.J., Broekhuizen-Stins, R, Ikawaty, A.C., Fluit, and Wagenaar, J.A. (2008) Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius between humans and animals. Vet Microbiol. 128, 213-215

Weese, J.S. and Duikeren, V.E. 2010 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in veterinary medicine. Vet. Microbiol. 140, 418-429.

Woolley KL, Kelly RF, Fazakerley J, Williams NJ, Nuttall TJ, McEwan, NA (2008) Reduced in vitro adherence of Staphylococcus species to feline corneocytes compared to canine and human corneocytes. Veterinary Dermatology 19 1-6.

Young R, Buckley L, McEwan NA and Nuttall TJ (2011) Comparative in vitro efficacy of antimicrobial shampoos: a pilot study. Veterinary Dermatology 23 36-40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2011.01002.x

Zubeir, I.E, Kanbur, T. Alber, J. Lammler, C. Akineden, O., Weiss, R. and Zschock, M. 2007: Phenotypic and genotypic characteristic of methicillin/oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius isolated from clinical specimens during routine veterinary microbiological examination. Vet. Microbiol. 121, 170-176.


MRSA, MRSP and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria are posing an increasing risk to animals and humans. The Bella Moss Foundation is at the forefront of efforts to combat these organisms. The work of the Foundation to bring vets, scientists and the public is invaluable. Their work in collating and disseminating practice information and advice is unique, and of worldwide importance."

Dr Tim Nuttall, BSc BVSc PhD CertVD CBiol MIBiol MRCVS, Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Dermatology. The University of Liverpool Faculty of Veterinary Science.

All about infections



If you notice these symptoms report them to your vet immediately. You may be suspicious of a complex and/or resistant infection if you pet has: A wound that will not [&hellip


Skin Infections & Pyoderma

1. How significant is infected dermatitis to the overall health of a dog? Superficial bacterial skin infections or pyoderma rarely cause significant illness. The clinical signs include itching, pustules, scaling [&hellip


Spotting Infections

Infections can generally be treated successfully with a single course of antibiotics, which may come in the form of creams or ointments, injections, or tablets, and many infections will even [&hellip

How we have Helped

I am so grateful to Jill Moss and Lori Spagnoli for all the information and comfort they gave me during the nine month fight we had with MRSI. Our English [&hellip

Charlotte – Max

Freya is our 2 1/2 year old Doberman. On the 16th September 2007, she was running to pick up her toy in the park and as she turned to come [&hellip

Chris and Julie – Freya

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